We have used the Krueger’s framework of data analysis, which is a well established approach to focus groups:


First stage:

Identifying a thematic framework, by writing memos in the margin of the text in the form of short phrases, ideas or concepts arising from the texts and beginning to develop categories At this stage descriptive statements are formed and an analysis is carried out on the data under the questioning route.


Second stage:

Indexing, comprises sifting the data, highlighting and sorting out quotes and making comparisons both within and between cases.


Third stage

Charting, involves lifting the quotes from their original context and re-arranging them under the newly-developed appropriate thematic content. One of the most important aspects of this task is data reduction, which is achieved by comparing and contrasting data and cutting and pasting similar quotes together.


Interpretation of data 

We have to make sense of the individual quotes, but also to be imaginative and analytical enough to see the relationship between the quotes, and the links between the data as a whole. Krueger (1994) provides seven established criteria, which suggest the following headings as a framework for interpreting coded data: words; context; internal consistency; frequency and extensiveness of comments; specificity of comments; intensity of comments; big ideas.


Questions to be asked in order to summarize the results:

  • What are the main ideas that emerged from all your focus groups?
  • What participant quotes summarize the key ideas perfectly?
  • What were the most common responses?
  • Were the responses different among sub-groups of participants (e.g., by gender, age, etc.)?
  • Were there any responses that were often mentioned together?
  • How might these findings be used in our research