What kind of studies are there available regarding migrant parents education?
Parental education arises from the need to support parents in their role, the rights of children, the resulting responsibilities and obligations, and their own rights and duties as parents. In turn, it seeks to promote processes of cognitive, affective, and behavioral change in parents, constituting an important resource for the promotion of positive parenting and the development of children.
Support for parenting is an important concern in the context of psychosocial intervention with the family, and challenges several community institutions with social responsibility at this level, and their professionals, to new demands for community intervention with this target audience. It is not a matter of intervening only in assistance logic, in terms of social or economic support, but of promoting parenting and the development of parenting skills, so that parents feel more capable of generating a good family environment in their homes, to assume themselves as educational agents and role models for their children.
Parental education and training should promote the empowerment and empowerment of parents, by allowing them to identify their potential and thus enhance the processes of change, in which they are agents, increasing their commitment, involvement, and involvement. Projects/programs based on an experiential model are more favorable to achieve this goal, as they seek to integrate different parenting experiences, freeing them from feelings of guilt, frustration, dependence, or parental incompetence. The information does not focus on the “should be” or on specific techniques for controlling the behavior of the children, on the contrary, starting from the experience of family life, it facilitates the reflection and analysis of the beliefs of parental figures, favoring the creation of commitments for change. Parents feel valued for taking their opinion into account and experience themselves as active agents and drivers of their own changes.
Parenting is thus a right of children / young people, a responsibility and a right of parents, as well as a responsibility of Governments, both Central and Local. Positive Parenting is defined as parental behavior based on the best interest of the child and that ensures the satisfaction of the main needs of children and their training without violence, providing them with the necessary recognition and guidance, which implies setting limits to their behavior, to enable their full development.
Parental Training as a form of social intervention has been the target of a growing interest, both internationally and in our country. The deep changes in social and family structure and in schools, are factors that have been promoting the development of intervention initiatives in this area. There are several studies in the context of internships, reports and theses on parental education, more specifically, having as a central theme the study of national cases. But there are also articles, news, magazines, campaigns, where the topic of parenting has been addressed. Some of these studies, which served as a basis for carrying out this research, can be consulted in the bibliography. The awareness of the challenges that cause the performance of parenting functions today has been a stimulus in the search for answers and support for those involved in the difficult process of educating. Also the theoretical contribution of psychology, particularly in the areas of study about parental education, family, parenting styles, parental involvement and its relevance to the development and balance of young people as well as for school success, has been encouraging the increasing investment in this area of intervention.
Only to mention Almeida et al. (2012) where data concerning the effects of different parent education interventions developed in Portugal are presented. A study was carried out with five hundred one participants participating in 56 interventions were evaluated using a pre- and post-test design. Analyses were designed to determine the participant and programme characteristics that were associated with intervention outcomes. After controlling for pre-test results, significant and positive intervention effects were found for parental stress, effective parenting attitudes (i.e., empathic responding, use of punitive discipline, and endorsement of parental roles), perception of the informal social support network and child behavioural and emotional difficulties. These positive outcomes are associated with some parental characteristics (educational level and child protection referrals) as well as with a number of programme characteristics (e.g., length of programme, existence of a manual, transportation, specific training in the programme). Discussion is focused on the positive effects of interventions and the role of the identified moderating factors as well as their implications for the development of parent education programmes.
Are there any policies in your country covering the topic of parental education for migrant parents?
In order to respond to the needs of education and to promote the well-being and integral development of children and young people, social policies have been developed that integrate the socio-educational support of parents through the promotion of intervention or counseling programs with regard to Education. Portuguese Parental. One of the pillars of the sustainability of legislative actions is the normative framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child because it advances with a range of guidelines, recommendations, and guidelines, with which the countries that signed it are committed and which is reflected in the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic. Another pillar is the Council of Europe, which has been issuing recommendations to promote positive parenting, as it is the one that best respects the rights of children.
The Council of Europe is an international organization whose mission is to develop common and democratic principles based, among others, on the referred Rights of the Child and Human Rights.
The Constitution of the Portuguese Republic of April 2, 1976, (revised by Constitutional Laws from 82 to 2001 on December 12), is bound under the terms of paragraph 2 of article 8, to respect the universal principles that enshrine the child’s interests, as well as the promotion of autonomy and the family’s ability to assume the responsibilities resulting from membership. The close relationship between the rights of the child and the parents, part of the consensus that the family is the basic nucleus of the social organization responsible for the growth, well-being, and protection of the child, as stated in articles 36 (Family, Marriage and Filiation), 67º (Family), and 69º (childhood). Family care is a guaranteed right under Portuguese law and Parental Education appears in public policies as a strategy to protect and promote the well-being of children and adolescents. According to the Law for the Protection of Children and Youth in Danger, competent bodies can provide support to parents or other family members when the child or adolescent is considered to be in danger.
It is true that investments have been made, particularly in the last 5 years, both nationally and internationally in this struggle for the generalization of positive parenting. However, it is necessary to continue to reinforce the idea of the relevance of national and international coordination in the different phases of implementation of these policies, with emphasis on the urgency of the dissemination of good practices (which may include Parental Training) and greater knowledge on guidelines regarding the practice of positive parenting. In order to create the best possible conditions for positive parenting, it is important to warn of the need for all professionals working with children and young people to receive training and guidance on how to put positive parenting into practice.
Are there any organizations in your country working for/with migrant parents?
What is their mission?
What are the most recent activities they implemented?
In Portugal there are some organizations that provide assistance, in its most varied forms, to migrant people, however, there are no organizations specifically directed to the area of parental education. However, the work of these organizations has had a very beneficial effect for all migrant people, and their families, upon their arrival in Portugal, both in their reception and in their integration into civil society, either in the area of education/training, or the labor market.
Portuguese organizations that provide assistance to migrant people:
- Association of Immigrants World Happy (“Associação de Imigrantes Mundo Feliz”) – non- profit and nationwide association, recognized by the High Commissioner for Migration since 2013. It was founded in 2011 by a group of immigrants from Romania who, in view of their own history, wanted to help other immigrants in their integration in Portugal, being an Association open to all nationalities. The Association’s main mission is to provide support for the integration of immigrants in Portugal and, in this sense, it has a service space connected in a network to various institutions that support immigrants, namely City Halls and other local institutions and In this service space, qualified mediators are prepared and prepared to inform, clarify and guide people in solving problems associated with their integration, passing through the most diverse areas: legalization, nationality, family reunification, social security, health, education/training, employment, entrepreneurship, legal support, housing, among others.
- International Organization for Migration (IOM) – leading inter-governmental organization in the field of It is present in Portugal since 1976. IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and counselling to migrants as well as technical support and advice to governments. IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As the leading international organization for migration, IOM acts with its partners in the international community to assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration management; advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development through migration; uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.
- Portuguese Council for Refugees (PCR) – this organization’s main objective is to defend and promote the right of asylum, of migrants or refugees, in PCR offers protection under the terms of International, European and National Human Rights and Refugee Law; provides direct and free, independent and impartial support, through various specialized departments that provide international protection and enable the migrant population to integrate into Portugal; develop information, awareness, and training actions, contributing to a more informed and receptive civil society to migrants and refugees.
- Migrant Support Line – is a telephone support service by the High Commission for Migration (ACM) in partnership with Portuguese civil society. The main objective of the Migrant Support Line is to respond immediately to the most frequently asked questions of Migrants, providing all the information available in the area of Migration by telephone and forwarding calls to the relevant departments. Migrant Support Line: 808 257 257 or +351 218 106
These organizations carry out their work with migrant citizens in a very close and continuous approach, with all the necessary support, help, and assistance. These organizations develop their work in different areas of intervention, namely, providing social support, legal support, providing information and public disclosure, contributing to the professional integration of these citizens, and also providing them with the opportunity to learn the Portuguese language through the possibility of attending Portuguese teaching.
Has your organization conducted any parental education activity?
Our company, Previform, has extensive experience in Adult Education in its most varied areas, including Education. However, we have not yet had the opportunity to work/develop activities specifically in the area of parent education, being aware that this is a fundamental area for society as it is the basis for the education and training of our children, as future citizens members of a cooperative, responsible and conscientious, professionally active and economically viable and robust society. However, one of the people who make up the Portuguese focus group, Marta Vieito, has long established a collaborative partnership with Previform and, in addition to the other educational areas in which she works, she has a specialization in the area of positive parenting, which seems to be, in my view, an excellent asset for the project “No Left Behind Children”.
However, we also have a lot of experience in the area of international Erasmus + projects, having participated in a very special project, “REaCT – Raising Equality And Cultural Tolerance”. REaCT is a Project that calls for tolerance and respect for human rights, it aims to disseminate positive messages about the mutual respect of citizens. It aims to involve local partners in the development and testing of innovative learning methods in the area of tolerance, such as the management of the migratory crisis in Europe; the prevention of racism and xenophobia through “training/information sessions”; improving interaction in the learning process so that we become more tolerant of people, respecting differences and multiculturalism.
This project aims to strengthen cooperation between adult education institutions to promote a culture of tolerance; learning about tolerance, diversity, and respect for minorities and immigrants; the approach of innovative training methods; improving teaching tools for adult trainers and promoting voluntary activities on tolerance; promoting cultural tolerance among EU citizens. Tolerance education should aim to combat the influences that lead to fear and exclusion from others and should help young people to develop their capacities for independent judgment, critical thinking, and ethical reasoning. The diversity of religions, languages, cultures, and ethnicities in our world is not a pretext for conflict, but it is a treasure that enriches us all.
With the REaCT project, a manual was prepared, “Lessons in tolerance – inclusive adult education”, which serves as a tool to support adult educators in teaching tolerance and diversity with regard to the use of different methods, with the aim of improving tolerant attitudes and thus contribute to change, trying to make a difference in the world. This manual contains a set of innovative methods, focused on three areas, for working with adult students in the context of tolerance. This manual listed and incorporated issues of tolerance, social diversity, and anti-discrimination in training. The guide will be in the form of an open training plan with numerous examples of life, proposals for teaching materials, explanation of concepts, and proposals to introduce elements of anti-discrimination education. The training is dedicated to educators involved in the context of adult education who work on the inclusion of national and ethnic minorities, refugees, and religious minorities according to the multicultural approach.
What are the most important parental education projects implemented in the past 5 years in your country?
What was the specific area/topic they focused on?
Did they include the development/use of any technological/digital tools?
Are their results, outcomes available? Are they quantized?
Some more relevant parental education projects implemented in the last 5 years in Portugal:
- “Time for Needs: Listening, Healing, Protecting” project – started in 2015 and completed in 2017. This project carried out as part of joint action for an adequate assessment of the special needs of victims of torture and violence. The aim of the project was to contribute to the identification of the special needs of victims of torture and extreme violence, in particular women and migrant children, within the scope of the asylum procedure as well as the reception conditions. The project also aimed to promote the harmonization of protection standards in the European Union (EU) for this vulnerable group.
- “Ready-Set-Go” Project – started in 2020 and will end in 2022. The main objective of the project is to support the socio-professional integration of unaccompanied minor children and young people who arrive in Portugal, and who have support from the Portuguese Council for This project is based on 3 pillars:
- “Ready” – Training for Young People
- “SET” – Creation of a Business Partnership Exchange
- “Go” – Completion
This project is essential because it will focus on one of the most important moments in the lives of young people: the transition to adulthood and the consequent autonomy of life.
- Project “REaCT – Raising Equality And Cultural Tolerance” – previously mentioned, started in 2018 and was concluded, with great success, in 2020. Focusing on the main topics, this is an International Erasmus + Project, and calls for tolerance and respect for human rights aims to disseminate positive messages about the mutual respect of citizens. With this project, a manual was prepared, “Lessons of Tolerance – Inclusive Education for Adults”, which contains a set of innovative methods, focused on three areas, containing an open training plan with countless life examples, proposals for teaching materials, explanation of concepts and proposals to introduce elements of anti-discrimination
- Have any parental education projects been implemented in your country that were addressed to migrant adults?
- Who led them?
- What was their purpose?
- Are their results, outcomes available? Are they quantized?
Some parental education projects implemented in Portugal:
- “Escolhas” Program – is a national governmental measure that runs until 2022, is coordinated by the Presidency of the Council of Ministers and integrated into the High Commission for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue – ACIDI, IP. This program aims to promote the social inclusion of children and young people from the most vulnerable socio-economic contexts, particularly descendants of immigrants and ethnic minorities, with a view to equal opportunities and strengthening social cohesion. The “Escolhas” Program is financed by the Social Security Institute, General Directorate of Education, and European Social Fund through the Human Potential Operational
- Parental Intervention Project with Dysfunctional Families – national project, developed with flagged families and accompanied by the CPCJ (Commissions for the Protection of
Children and Youth) of Bragança, which included Portuguese families and families of other nationalities. This project took place in 2012.
The project aimed to promote the development of a parental education program for parents designated at CPCJ; increasing families’ self-confidence and self-esteem; increasing the well-being and quality of life of families; empowering parents with new intervention strategies; changing parenting behaviors and disruptive educational practices; the strengthening of family relationships through the empowerment of parents to apply and use positive strategies, minimizing conflicts within and outside the family; the promotion of positive parenting skills through the inclusion of children and parents in society.
The project’s methodology was based on principles of active participation, discussion of themes, reflection, dynamics, and group dramatizations based on the parents’ experience. The project included 12 sessions per group, each lasting 2 hours, covering a different theme, highlighting the importance of positive parenting principles.
The partners in this project were CPCJ de Bragança, the Bragança Health Center, and the associated entities of the District Nucleus.
- “Concelhio de Educação Parental” Project – national project, developed with Portuguese and other nationalities families that were not installed in Vila Nova de Famalicão. This project took place in
The main mission of this project was to make “family-friendly schools“. Thus, in the School Group, a team of professionals was created (consisting of a School Commissioner and Parental Guidance Counselors), available to support parents in the exercise of their parental roles. This team worked in close partnership with the Municipal Parentality team. The school team for parenting developed a set of actions, namely, individual and private counseling, and offering to participate in parental education programs, which focused on forms of non-violent discipline, which promoted healthy relationships between parents and children and which guided parents for disciplinary, constructive and positive control behaviors, suitable for the development of children and young people and respectful of their interests and opinions.
The partners of this project were the D. Maria II School Group and the Vila Nova de Famalicão City Council.
- “Seixo, Investe, Ganha e Autonomiza (SIGA)” Project – promoted by the Association for the Integrated Development of Matosinhos (ADEIMA) and included in the “Escolhas” This project started in 2013 and ended in 2015. The SIGA project aimed to act for the social inclusion of children and young people who were in a situation of greater vulnerability, and there is also an action with their families, to promote a transformation of existing problems. Thus, it implemented two actions in the local community:
- Parental Training in Family Relationships and at School – aimed at parents and with the aim of working on parenting skills and deconstructing some conceptions about parent-child interaction and the importance of schooling in the life course of individuals;
- Intervention in the context of conflict management – providing, through attractive dynamics, personal and social skills that enable conflict resolution in an alternative way to violence and
Thus, parents saw their theoretical concepts deepened in parenting skills and, consequently, in the technique of Parental Education, as well as in conflict management according to peaceful and negotiating strategies.
The partners of the SIGA project were ADEIMA; the Municipality of Matosinhos; the MAIS – Matosinhos Association Supports Social Insertion; the CPCJ of Matosinhos; and the Abel Salazar School Group.
What kind of policies and activities are in place in your country aimed to support the educational process and the behavioural development of left behind children?
Legislation/policies exist in Portugal that aims to ensure the educational process and the behavioral development of helpless / abandoned children:
- Law 27/2008, of 30 June, with the changes introduced by Law 26/2014 of 2 May, the Law for the Protection of Children and Youth in Danger (Law 147/99, 1 September) and guidelines from the High Commissioner of United Nations for Refugees (UNHCR) – Asylum Law governing the reception of refugee
- Decree-Law 189/91 of 5/17 reformulated in accordance with the Law for the Protection of Children and Youth in Danger approved by Law no. 147/99, of September 1. This law had three changes: Law no. 31/2003, of 22 August, Law no. 142/2015, of 8 September, and Law no. 23/2017, of May 23 – Laws that support Child Protection Commissions.
- Decree-Law no. 139/2017 of 10 November amended and republished Decree-Law no. 159/2015, which creates the National Commission for the Promotion of the Rights and Protection of Children and Decree-Law no. 159/2015 of 10 August Creation of the National Commission for the Promotion of the Rights and Protection of Children and Youth. These Commissions, among other duties, have the mission of contributing to the planning of State intervention and to the coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of the action of public bodies and the community in promoting the rights and protection of children and young people.
- Decree-Law 67/2004 of 25 March – Creation of the national register of foreign minors who are in an irregular situation in the national territory.
- Ordinance 995/2004 of 9 August – Regulates the collection and processing of personal data of minors covered by Decree-Law 67/2004, of 25 March.
- Law 51/2012, of 05 September, which underwent Rectification no. 46/2012, of 17/09
– Approves the Student Statute and School Ethics, which establishes the rights and duties of students in basic and secondary education and the commitment of parents or guardians and other members of the educational community in their education and training, repealing Law no. 30/2002, of December 20.
- Law nº 147/99 of 09/01/1999, Article 41 – Parental education, published in Diário da República, nº 204 Series I Part A:
- When the measures provided for in Articles 39 and 40 are applied, parents or family members to whom the child or young person is delivered can benefit from a training program aimed at the best exercise of parental functions;
- The content and duration of parental education programs are subject to
- What are the main organizations (national, international) in your country working for left behind children?
Some of the organizations that work with left behind children are:
- House for Refugee Children (CACR) – has the purpose of providing specialized shelter for children and young people under 18, in their asylum CACR offers children a stable environment, where they can be accompanied throughout their development as responsible and autonomous individuals when creating their life project; ensures the well-being of the child/youth by providing a dignified, safe, and regenerating hope; supports family reunification, whenever this is the child’s/youngster’s desire. The children welcomed by CACR are “unaccompanied minors”, that is, they arrive in Portuguese territory without the parents or adult person who is responsible for them.
- “A Criança” Space – is part of the organization Portuguese Council for Refugees (CPR), Non-Governmental Organization for Development (ONGD), which supports asylum seekers and refugees in all phases of the asylum procedure, reception and integration in the Portuguese This space aims to offer a unique place for socializing among children from very diverse backgrounds that stimulates positive attitudes towards multicultural differences. “A Criança” is an educational and playful project dedicated to the family, in particular children, who are encouraged to look at themselves, others and the world. We want to contribute to preparing complete human beings, open to their emotions, to each other and to nature.
- SOS Children’s Villages in Portugal – this organization belongs to a world federation (SOS Kinderdorf International) that works to protect and care for children who have lost parental care or are at risk of losing They work with communities, partners and governments to ensure that the rights of all children, in all societies, are fulfilled. “SOS Children’s Villages” believes that each child should belong to a family and grow with love, respect and security, with the mission of building families for children at risk or in danger, helping them to be part of building their own future, together with the surrounding community.
- Home for Children and Youth (“Lar de Infância e Juventude”)– this organization is a home that welcomes babies, children and teenagers in danger, who are unprotected. They are children and young people from disaggregated, dysfunctional family environments, who live with serious problems such as alcoholism, poverty and begging, drug addiction, deviant and risky behaviors (prostitution, etc.), and who are, for this reason, neglected and/or mistreated in psychological, physical and, (to a much lesser extent) sexual terms. . In this organization, children and adolescents can grow in a healthy and harmonious way, with all the love and support necessary for their development, where they feel socially integrated, through various supports, namely, at the social, psychological, health and school
- Portuguese Association for the Support of Abandoned Children (APACA) – is a national institution of Social Solidarity. APCA’s mission is to help abandoned, disadvantaged and physically and/or intellectually disabled children through food, education, health, clothing, accommodation, treatments, etc., everything children need to achieve a better quality of
- House of Kid (“Casa da Criança”) – is a national institution of Social Solidarity, which develops its work with children at risk, children flagged with the child emergency status. This institution promotes and defends the Rights of the Child, through the creation of reception infrastructures for children at risk, in close collaboration with the official entities involved in the defense of their rights and
- Children and Youth Protection Commissions (CPCJ) – official non-judicial institutions, with functional autonomy, which aim to promote the rights of children and young people and to prevent or end situations likely to affect their safety, health, training, education or integral development. The CPCJ’s intend to contribute to the planning of the intervention of the Portuguese State, and to the coordination, monitoring and evaluation of the action of public bodies and the community in promoting the rights and protection of children and young people. It is thus constituted as a reference entity for the effective realization of the Human Rights of each and every child in
Have there been implemented in your country any projects addressed to left behind children in the past five years?
Who initiated them?
What did they focus on?
What are their results?
Some projects aimed at behind children implemented in the last 5 years in Portugal:
- “Adélia: Tornar as famílias em famílias melhores” Project – developed by the National Commission for the Promotion of the Rights and Protection of Children and Youth (CNPDPCJ) and co-financed by POISE (Operational Program for Social Inclusion and Employment), and will be developed until
The “Adélia” project aims at building violence-free parenting and promoting parenting behaviors that respect the best interests and rights of the child. This project aims to help families to be better, through positive parenting practices, with the creation of local plans to promote children’s rights and preventive measures.
- Project 12 “Justiça para Crianças” – project developed by the National Commission for the Promotion of the Rights and Protection of Children and Youth in partnership with ISCTE- IUL – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, and with Logframe – Consultoria e Formação. This project is co-financed by the European Commission, under the Rights, Equality and Citizenship program, and will be completed in 2022. The project aims to contribute to accessible, age-appropriate, rapid, diligent, adapted, and focused on the needs and rights of society
The main objective of this project is to improve the procedures regarding the participation and hearing of children in the processes that concern them, developing material kits for children and professionals, adapted to different age groups and children with special needs, in order to support the child’s preparation and hearing; training of professionals, magistrates and members of CPCJ, through a training plan tailored to the project’s objectives; development of a performance protocol that includes a set of good practices and recommendations on child-friendly justice, aimed at CPCJ professionals and magistrates; organization of an international seminar, with the participation of the children participating in the project, as well as European specialists in child-friendly justice.
- “Selo Protetor” Project – integrated risk and danger management system and represents an opportunity for self-diagnosis and training aimed at Entities with Competence in Matters of Childhood and Youth (ECMIJ) in the scope of the promotion and protection of the Rights of the Child. This project was designed to provide information and guidance that helps entities that work with children and youth, and CPCJ has already implemented it five years ago and will continue to follow this project for the next two years because it is essential to monitor and bet in preventing the rights of children and young people through public policies that promote and distinguish excellent monitoring and protection
- Can you identify the specific needs of migrant parents and of left behind children based on the researched information?
After conducting this research on parental education and destitute children, it appears that there is still a great deal of work to be done in the area of parental education in migrant parents and their children who are destitute in their countries of origin. It appears that there is a great lack of information on these specific topics, however on positive parenting and on the rights of children and young people, in a national context and without the involvement of migration, it is already possible to materialize ideas and be aware of the evolution of this subject. in Portugal. Thus, and in this initial phase of the “NLBChildren” project, it is still uncertain to identify the specific needs of migrant parents and children who remain in their countries of origin based on the researched information.
Currently, being a parent corresponds to the performance of a role that is subject to permanent internal and external scrutiny. Parents seek, as much as possible, to provide their children with the life and experiences that they consider most appropriate and stimulating, or that they themselves felt deprived of. Society, through its multiple social systems, feels the right and the duty to care for the best interests of the child, in order to promote their development, defending, simultaneously, the principle of parental responsibility and the prevalence of the family. The decrease in the number of children, giving each child the status of a precious asset, the increase in the number of divorces and family reconstitutions, complexifying the network of family relationships and creating multiple sources of tension, the increase in precarious employment, unemployment, and the emergence of economic vulnerabilities in a society where unpredictability and transformation are almost constant and where the right to personal gratification and individual well-being is proclaimed daily, create conditions for human beings to focus on their individual needs and purposes, for at the expense of family and/or social purposes.
Public awareness of the dangers of an abused or neglected childhood, associated with the expansion of scientific knowledge about risk, vulnerability, and resilience as well as the expansion of therapeutic and socio-educational proposals and of professionals and institutions capable of developing them, has led countries to affirm and promote policies to support children and the family. Wishing to help parents to respond to the challenges they face and to provide contexts for promoting positive parenting, States have sought to create and regulate measures to support the development of parenting skills. The progressive offer of parental education programs, standardized and based on evidence, constitutes, on the one hand, a resource that facilitates the development of parental education interventions but, on the other hand, requires that the recommendations that can be made regarding respect to the development of this type of intervention are increasingly based on knowledge of its real effects on the well-being of individuals, groups, and communities.
After this research, there are some gaps with an urgent nature that deserve greater attention from the Government and its respective Government Institutions, namely:
- Promote the development of parental education programs/projects for migrant parents;
- Promote training initiatives aimed at developing the skills of parents as educators;
- Increase the well-being and quality of life of families, as well as their self-esteem;
- Provide parents with new intervention strategies;
- Contribute to a personal deepening of parenting, changing parenting behaviors and disruptive educational practices;
- Empower parents to apply and use positive strategies, minimizing conflicts within and outside the family;
- Promote the inclusion of children and parents in society;
- Promote the development of programs/projects aimed at left-behind children;
- Increase the quality of the relationships between parents and children, developing strategies that reduce the bad behavior of the child/youth at home, at school, and among peers;
- Promote positive attention (active listening), and use praise to enhance and motivate the abilities of children and young people and make them confining, resilient, committed, humble, people of character and
- Statistical data on Asylum Applications made to Portugal in the last 5 years:
The organization “Portuguese Council for Refugees (CPR)”, which also includes the institutions “Shelter for Refugee Children (CACR)” and “Space – The Child”, has available statistics for Asylum Applications made to Portugal from 2008 to 2020. It also presents, in its annual reports, in detail, all its work done with the citizens it welcomes, and with which it has done a great job. In summary, the data for the last five years of work of this organization are presented:
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2 015:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered a total of 872 applications for international protection submitted in Portugal. 52 different nationalities correspond to the requests submitted, with the most relevant countries of origin being Ukraine (with 368 requests), Mali (86 requests), China (with 75 requests) and Pakistan (with 60 requests). The European continent is the most representative in terms of applications submitted (with 393 applications), followed by the African continent (272), the Asian / Middle East continent (197) and finally the American continent (10). Of the aforementioned 872 applications for international protection in Portugal, 553 were submitted by men (corresponding to 63% of the total applications) and 319 by women (37%). During this period, 54 asylum applications were also registered by unaccompanied minors.
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2016:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered 305 spontaneous requests for international protection submitted in Portugal. Of these 305 requests, 209 were submitted by men (corresponding to 69% of the total requests) and 96 by women (31%). In this period, 22 asylum applications were also registered by unaccompanied minors. However, during 2016, 452 people also arrived in Portugal under the National Relocation Program, coming from hotspots located in Greece (302) and Italy (150), with the most expressive nationalities being Eritrea and Syria. Thus, in total, 757 applications for international protection were submitted in Portugal in 2016.
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2017:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered a total of 1750 spontaneous requests for international protection submitted in Portugal. Of these 1,750 applications, 476 were pending for a variety of reasons, 119 were accepted through the Refugee Status, 136 were accepted through Subsidiary Protection, and 455 were rejected. Of these 1,750 applications, 1072 were submitted by men (corresponding to 61% of the total applications) and 678 by women (39%). During this period, 455 asylum applications were also registered by children (26%) and an additional 28 asylum applications were registered by unaccompanied minors (16%).
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2018:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered a total of 1220 requests for international protection submitted in Portugal. Of these 1220 requests, 1190 were spontaneous requests (which include 66 unaccompanied children and 86 adults rescued from humanitarian aid vessels in the Mediterranean Sea), 30 of these requests were also made by applicants relocated under the National Program under the European Agenda for European Union Migration. In these 1190 spontaneous requests for protection, 68% of the applicants were male and 66% of these requests for international protection have already been made in Portugal (Portugal).
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2019:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered a total of 1716 spontaneous international protection requests submitted in Portugal. These 1716 requests, included 77 requests from unaccompanied minors and 101 requests from applicants from humanitarian boats that landed in Italy and Malta. This figure represents an increase of 44% compared to the previous year.
- Asylum Applications in Portugal – 2020:
The Foreigners and Borders Service registered a total of 893 spontaneous international protection requests submitted in Portugal. These 893 requests included 39 unaccompanied minors, 22% of which were submitted by women. Of the total orders placed, 79% were already made in Portugal (Portugal).
Please note that all of these reports and data are available online and can be consulted through the bibliographic references contained in this document.
Abreu‐Lima, I., Alarcão, M., Almeida, A. T., Brandão, T., Cruz, O., Gaspar, M. F., Ribeiro dos Santos, M. (2010). Avaliação de intervenções de educação parental: relatório. Minho University, Portugal, 112 pp.
Almeida, A., Abreu-Lima, I., Cruz, O., Gaspar, M.F., Brandão, T., Alarcão, M., Santos, M.R., Machado, J.C. (2012). Parent education interventions: Results from a national study in Portugal, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9:1, 135-149, DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.647865
Anonymous. (2021). Pandemic recovery presents historic opportunity to ensure human rights for all: Guterres. UN News Journal. Accessed on: https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/02/1085562
Anonymous. (2021). Global Compact on Refugees: How is this different from the migrants’ pact and how will it help? UN News Journal. Accessed on: https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/12/1028641?fbclid=IwAR2W2vHwRFJ-p77Lwj-Od9xt- A4bsVwCkr3z8IYqsgAfi4H8zoLbY8xsSIs
Cruz, O. & Ducharne, M.A. (2006).; Intervenção na Parentalidade – o caso específico da Formação de Pais., Revista Galego-Portuguesa de Psicología e Educación, 11, 295-309.
Grassi, M., Vivet, J. (2015). Cuidar das Crianças entre Angola e Portugal – a parentalidade nas famílias transnacionais. SciELO Portugal – Sociology, Problems and Practices, n.º 79, pp. 85-108. DOI:10.7458/SPP2015793478
Hortas, M.J. (2013). Educação e imigração: a integração dos alunos imigrantes nas escolas do ensino básico do centro histórico de Lisboa – (Estudos OI; 50). Edição Alto- Comissariado para a Imigração e Diálogo Intercultural (ACIDI, I.P.), 244pp. ISBN 978-989- 685-054-8 CDU 37
Joana Isabel Machado Moreira, J.I.M. (2015). Educação Parental e Gestão de Conflitos: duas formas de ação num Projeto de Intervenção Comunitária. Master’s Thesis. Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal, 102 pp.
Rocha, D. (2012). Imigrantes em Portugal têm os níveis de escolarização mais baixos da OCDE. Público and Lusa Journal. Accessed on: https://www.publico.pt/2012/12/03/sociedade/noticia/imigrantes-portugueses-tem-os- niveis-de-escolarizacao-mais-baixos-da-ocde-1575926
Rodrigo, M.J.; Máiquez, M.L. & Martín, J.C. (2010). Buenas práticas profesionales para el apoyo de la parentalidad positiva., Madrid: Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias.
Sanders, M.R., Markie-Dadds, C. & Turner, K.M.T (2003). Theoretical, scientific and clinical foundations of the Triple P: a population approach to the promotion of parenting competence., Parenting Research and Practice Monograph, 1, 1-24.
Silva, V.G. (2013). Os Imigrantes Brasileiros em Portugal e a Educação ao Longo da Vida. Master’s Thesis. University Institute of Lisbon (Iscte), Portugal, 74pp.
http://www.casadacrianca.pt/quem-somos https://www.cnpdpcj.gov.pt/cpcj https://cpr.pt/publicacoes/pedidos-de-asilo-em-portugal-2015/ https://cpr.pt/publicacoes/pedidos-de-asilo-em-portugal-2016/ https://cpr.pt/publicacoes/pedidos-de-asilo-em-portugal-2017/