• What kind of studies are there available regarding migrant parents and left behind children?

Regarding migrant parents and left behind children, we have found recent studies carried out in our country.

Invisible  childhoods  is a study developed by Save the Children in Spain. Nowadays, the number of children who migrate is increasing and migratory flows are becoming more complex, this is why this organisation decided to make this investigation. In addition, they are increasingly younger boys and girls: from 2000 to 2015, migrants under 4 years of age increased by 41%.

In Spain, there are three groups of especially vulnerable and unprotected boys and girls: girls who are  victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation, children who travel without anyone to take care of them (known as unaccompanied foreign minors) and refugee children.

The Spanish State is not fully or satisfactorily complying with its legal obligations with respect to these groups. Their status as immigrants is placed before that of being minors, and there are contradictions between the laws and practices aimed at controlling migratory flows and those aimed at protecting children.

Despite the fact that in Spain there are girls who are victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation, they remain unidentified. Although they are advertised every day in the newspapers and are seen on our streets, the police only located 17 girls in 2014. However, it is estimated that in our country there are about 45,000 victims among adults and minors. When they are found, they are not adequately protected because there are no specialized resources for underage victims of trafficking. They are not kept away from the clutches of the exploiters, who know where they are and only have to reactivate their control mechanisms to exploit them again. Some of these women and girls have sons and daughters, affected by how their mothers are exploited, and totally invisible to the Administration.

For unaccompanied foreign minors, the State has the obligation to protect them, be their legal guardian and guarantee their education and development. However, there are children who are not protected, live on the streets and survive as best they can. Those who are protected by the autonomous communities (3,660 in 2014) are provided with a poor education and cannot work under the same conditions as Spanish children over 16 years of age. When they turn 18 they are left to their own devices without support and on many occasions without having received the documentation to which they are entitled.

Another study found was carried out by the University of Zaragoza in Spain called “Migrant families in Spain: sociodemographic structure, gender roles and cultural patterns of adolescent children.”

This study  analyzes the family structure, the gender roles of parents and children and the cultural patterns of immigrant families in Spain based on a survey carried out among schoolchildren between 12 and 17 years of age in the city of Zaragoza. The family is shown as an agent that is torn between reproduction and social change. On one hand, this agent transmits values and behaviors that in some cases perpetuate traditional gender roles, but on the other hand, it is influenced by social changes in the destination society, especially by other agents such as school and work. The conclusions suggest that the children of  immigrants  have different social positions with respect to their parents, the destination society and gender relations depending on the influence of the cultural guidelines of the origin society.


  • Are there any studies available regarding migrant parents education?


In Spain, there are different studies regarding education for migrant children and their families. Even though this is an important issue in our country, there are not enough studies about migrant parents education.

During our research, we have found that Obra Social La Caixa has been working to help those families and their children through the process of integration and education in our country. We would like to mention one of their studies which was carried out in 2014.

This study is called “ Growing up in Spain. The integration of children of migrant parents”. This investigation pretends to give conclusions regarding the grade of integration of the children of foreigners who have come to our country in recent decades. These results contribute to the knowledge of the benefits and difficulties experienced by second generations of immigrants. Likewise, the study contains interesting evidence for the debate on the grade of cohesion and equal opportunities offered by current multicultural societies and to what extent it is necessary to continue advancing along this path


  • Are there any policies in your country covering the topic of parental education for migrant parents?


Spain receives a variety of migrant populations and refugees. Children and young people suffer different risks and go through experiences where their lives are at risk and they have to face them. Leaving their homes, losing their families or being witnesses of violent situations mean an impact on their emotional development of those children and adolescents and it is necessary to have the right support from professionals who can help them to affront those situations.

Children who come to Spain alone are in a very difficult situation as they do not have their parents with them. In 2017, more than 2500 children arrived without their parents or adult caregivers.

The Spanish Government and public institutions have the obligation of protecting and defending their rights to make sure they have opportunities to live the present and the future in our country.

Taking everything mentioned above and according to the Spanish law and in order to respond to the needs of education and to promote the well-being of children, different social policies have been developed along the years.

The article 27 of the Spanish Constitutions mentions that every child has the right of receiving education. It recognises the liberty of teaching and education as an objective to ensure the full development of the human personality in respect for the democratic principles of coexistence and fundamental rights and freedoms. Public institutions will guarantee the right of parents so that their children receive religious and moral training that is in accordance with their own convictions. Also, the access to education is an obligation and it is free in Spain and the right of education will be guaranteed through a general teaching program. The freedom to create educational centers is recognized for natural and legal persons, while respecting constitutional principles.Teachers, parents and, where appropriate, students will intervene in the control and management of all centers supported by the Administration with public funds, in the terms established by law as well. Also, public institutions will inspect and approve the educational system to guarantee compliance with the law and the public authorities will help the educational centers that meet the requirements established by law. Finally, the autonomy of the Universities is recognized, in the terms established by law.


  • Are there any organizations in your country working for/with migrant parents?

    • What is their mission?

    • What are the most recent activities they implemented?

    • What are their results?

In Spain, there are different organizations which help migrant people, but there are not specific organizations for migrant parents. However, these organizations help migrant families with processes related to housing, education, health, inclusion, etc.


  • Red ACOGE

Red ACOGE is a federation of organisations specialised in the social inclusion of migrants in Spain. They work in the network together with different organisations since 1999, through joint cooperation and coordination of their actions, for the promotion, vindication and defense of their rights from an integral perspective, promoting their participation in society and promoting their non-discrimination. Their mission is to promote the rights for migrant people and their inclusion in the society through the influence in decisions, promote their participation and the development of services.

At the moment they are working on some projects and programmes. One of them started in January 2021 which consists of an applied research at a state level that will try to make visible the socioeconomic factors that condition access to the rights of the migrant population in Spanish society under conditions of equality. The objective of study will focus specifically on the factors that condition access and / or renewal of temporary residence and / or work authorizations for others and for themselves in Spain as a way to recognize their rights. The ultimate purpose of this project is to advance in the inclusion of the migrant population as subjects of full rights.

At the end of the year, the technical office of Red Acoge will prepare a final report with the main results of the investigation that will also include a series of proposals on measures that favor compliance by the COVID-19 pandemic in the social and economic context. Part of migrants from the requirements both to maintain the status of legal residence in Spain and to access it for the first time. This report and its proposals will be sent to the local and state public authorities in terms of holders of obligations in order to make visible the real and objective difficulties of the migrant population and that the proposals become real public policies that meet specific demands of these people.



They are a non profit organisation which works to improve the living conditions of people in vulnerable situations. They defend equal rights, duties and opportunities for all people, regardless of their origin, gender, national or ethnic origin, sexual orientation and identity, religion, opinion or social group. Their mission is to defend fundamental rights, care and to support people who are in a situation or at risk of social exclusion.

Accem started to work with the migrant population in the second half of the 90s. Before, in the 60s, they had supported Spanish emigrants who were looking for better opportunities in other countries in Europe and America. In 1998, they started to develop programmes of direct care, reception, training and socio-labor insertion with migrants.

Since 2005, there has been an increase in the number of people who try to arrive in Spain, putting their lives at risk. In response to this reality, they created a programme for attention to migrant people who arrive to the Spanish Coasts.

Nowadays, they have got numerous programmes and services for migrant people, specially aimed at supporting people in the most vulnerable situations and facilitating their social integration processes.

The number of migrant people attended by Accem in 2019 was 9.978:


  • CEAR

The Spanish Commission for Refugee Aid, CEAR, has been defending the right to asylum and human rights since 1979, promoting the integral development of refugees who are fleeing armed conflicts or violation of human rights, asylum seekers, stateless persons and migrants. in need of international protection and / or at risk of social exclusion.

CEAR´s mission is to defend and promote Human Rights and the integral development of refugees, stateless persons and migrants in need of international protection and / or at risk of social exclusion.

CEAR has actively worked in the defense and promotion of the right to asylum in Spain with the aim of advancing its recognition and guaranteeing access to the international protection procedure with all the guarantees of the law.

They provide direct and integral assistance to refugees in different areas: reception, insertion into the labour market and psychosocial care, legal defense and complaint to advance in the recognition of the rights of refugees. CEAR has got reception centers for asylum seekers and refugees as well. At the moment, they count with the help of 1000 volunteers and more than 1200 workers. In 2019, they attended more than 34.000 people who were looking for international protection. More than 5.300 partners and around 100.000 followers in social media support their work.

One of their projects is related to humanitarian care for migrants. Most of the users are migrants who have arrived in our country along the coast and who are in a vulnerable situation due to the lack of social or family support and financial aspects. The intervention contemplates the management of two complementary services: the transfer of people from their location to the destination reception center and their integral reception in the center and / or device where in addition to offering coverage of their basic and other needs benefits, the necessary technical resources are also provided (language learning, training and orientation, etc.) so that these people can, in the shortest possible time, join the host society or meet with their support networks.



Cepaim started to work in 1994 in an attempt to articulate a network structure between organizations of the third sector of social action, specialized in the processes of integration of immigrants and refugees who met years before in the framework of the European Puzzle Network.

Nowadays, Cepaim is a non-profit organisation with a national and international scope, integrated into the Spanish Network for the fight against Poverty and Exclusion and the Third Sector Platform for Social Action. They advise on social and integration policies for migrants through their participation, among others, in the Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination and in the Forum for the social integration of immigrants. Cepaim is a social initiative that seeks to bring together, put in relation to people, entities, cultures, ideas and diverse initiatives, related  to the great challenge of the 21st century, the adequate management of the cultural diversity present in our neighborhoods, in our educational centers and in our companies, favoring integration, coexistence and social cohesion.

Cepaim has got different projects and programmes to help people at risk of exclusion but they are working on a programme which the main objective is to help families and children fighting to break the cycle of child poverty, guaranteeing access for boys and girls at risk of social exclusion to the same health, social and educational opportunities This program has provided them with both the resources and the necessary bases and guidelines to prevent children from being in a situation of vulnerability. They offer educational reinforcement, educational leisure activities, family psychotherapeutic care, support for child nutrition and hygiene or aid for school equipment, glasses or hearing aids.


  • Has your organization conducted any parental education activity?


At the moment, Inercia Digital is working on a project called “Positive Parenting”. This project tries to help parents who have got children with autism. It will help them to gain the development skills they need to regulate their own behaviours, as well as teach them new skills, behavioural therapy techniques can prove very effective.

Although ABA therapy is and should be provided by certified and experienced therapists, parent involvement in the treatment process has been found to be a factor that increases the likelihood of positive outcomes for the child (Crockett and Fleming, 2007). Giving parents of children with ASD useful parenting tools and knowledge, can lead to greater self-confidence, increase the chances of positive treatment outcomes, acceptance of life challenges and even generalisation of effective parenting skills to other children of the family.

ABA parent training could also result in better relationship dynamics between parents when they are both on board with implementing similar strategies with their child. Additionally, even families that do not run an ABA therapy programme, could greatly benefit from a parent training based on the principles of ABA as it can give them the knowledge they need to manage their child’s challenging behaviour, teach them important skills such as self-help skills, communication and social skills and pre-academic skills.


The project will bring together 6 European organisations to accomplish the following objectives:

  • To deliver training courses to directly train parents in behavioural techniques and, also, to deliver these courses to a target group of adult education trainers, in order to amplify and perpetuate the ripple effect of those
  • Design, test and publish an innovative training package for adult education trainers that will train the target group (parents) to acquire sufficient knowledge and understanding about ABA and parenting techniques based on the science of behaviour


Another activity related to parental education was carried out by Inercia Digital years ago with the project called PSAJO, which developed an online course to validate the employability skills of young parents and help their re-insertion in the work market after becoming parents. The course was made up of various units focusing on the following topics: Leadership Skills, Time Management and Finance Management in the workplace.


  • What are the most important parental education projects implemented in the past 10 years in your country?

    • What was the specific area/topic they focused on?

    • Did they include the development/use of any technological/digital tools?

    • Are their results, outcomes available? Are they quantized?


  • RADIO ECCA: (Escuela de padres y madres (Radio) y Programa de Apoyo Personal P1 y Familiar (Presencial):

This programme started in 2017. The programme was focused on the development of educational activities for families from Andalusia and Murcia. It was carried out in parents associations, social worker centers and schools. The aim of this programme is to reinforce in parents the role they play as educators through awareness and training on family education and positive parenting. During its implementation, workers followed different phases: dissemination activities to get parents who were interested in this initiative and activities related to parental education.

As a result, 620 parents were informed about the  programme and its objectives in terms of family education and positive parenting, 94 parents were trained in  family education and positive parenting and 4 courses of 152 hours each were developed.


  • Programa de parentalidad positiva del ayuntamiento de Vitoria-Gasteiz 2018-2022:

The town of Victoria-Gasteiz has got a long history on the development of policies aimed at childhood, young people and their families and an example of this is the II Plan for Childhood and Adolescence which was approved in 2018. The plan represents the commitment to continue cross-cutting work with children and adolescents and respond to the mandate to guarantee the rights and well-being of children and adolescents in the city.

Positive Parenting, in addition to being objective 1.3 of the II PLAn, is also a concept and objective included in the guiding principles of the Strategic Plan for Social Policies (2016-2020) of the Vitoria-Gasteiz City Council, for which there is a clear commitment municipal government for promoting the development of resources and programs that include this approach.

This Positive Parenting Program has as a precedent the participatory development of a Map of Positive Parenting programs and activities in the Vitoria-Gasteiz City Council, carried out in 2015, which provided them with a vision of the reality of the programs and actions that were being carried out in the field of positive parenting and placed them before the main future challenges in Positive Parenting.

From this Map of programs and resources, and its subsequent participatory contrast, three strategic lines of actions in Positive Parenting have been identified aimed at families, professionals and institutions responsible for the implementation of family policies. These lines have defined the 81 actions committed by different municipal services and departments that make up the Positive Parenting Program, which has been approved by the Governing Board on January 11, 2019.


  • Personal and Family Support) prevention programme for high psychosocial risk parents:

The programme was designed for low-educated mothers from extremely deprived and multi-problem families which showed inadequate behaviour with their children. A formal agreement between the Tenerife (Canary Islands) government, the ECCA foundation and La Laguna University allowed the programme to be implemented. A total of 340 mothers referred by the Tenerife (Spain) social services participated in the programme, 185 of these mothers followed the APF  programme during eight months, and 155 mothers served as the control group. Pre-post  test  comparisons  for the intervention group and only post-test comparisons with the control group on self-rating measures of maternal beliefs, child-rearing practices and personal agency were performed. Mothers’ support of Nurturist and Nativist beliefs and the reported use of Neglect-permissive and Coercive practices significantly decreased after the programme’s completion. Self-efficacy, Internal control, Marital agreement, Role difficulty and the reported use of Inductive practices significantly increased. Most of these changes were also significant in relation to those of the control group.


  • Have any parental education projects been implemented in your country that were addressed to migrant adults?

    • Who led them?

    • What was their purpose?

    • Are their results, outcomes available? Are they quantized?

There are some parental education projects which have been implemented in Spain.

  • Intercultural awareness and participation of migrant families in school. This programme has been developed by the organisation Accem. The programme encourages the participation of migrant families in the education system and community. It constitutes a link with the educational community to promote social cohesion through intercultural education. The actions carried out involved family schools, culture of origin talks, workshops on the educational system and intercultural awareness

It is aimed at third-country nationals with residence authorization in Spain in charge of caring for minors in school. Intercultural awareness activities are aimed at the educational community.

Through this program, the approach of the entire educational community to the culture of origin of migrant families is encouraged; intercultural activities are organized and held that highlight the richness of diversity; and exchange spaces are created to promote an intercultural society.

The intercultural mediation tool is used for the prevention and resolution of possible conflicts, and the Associations of Parents of Students (AMPA) are supported to encourage the participation of migrant families in them.

The programme is being carried out in the autonomous communities of Galicia (A Coruña) and Asturias (Gijón and Oviedo).


●     Social Intervention with migrant people.

The project “social intervention with migrant people” carried out by Araba organisation is an initiative of awareness, training and solidarity, open to young people who, starting from a social concern, responsibly engage in permanent activities aimed at disadvantaged groups. Through spanish lessons they give them the opportunity to make contact and inclusion in our society.

The specific objectives of this project are:

  • To collaborate with the learning of the spanish language.
  • To enhance leisure and free time spaces with immigrants, favoring mutual knowledge and
  • To understand the inmigration from the relationship with people, the analysis of reality and

This organisation has been organising spanish lessons for different levels of learning and some volunteers have been selected to teach the language.

Before the lessons, a team reviews the actions: needs of the people, contents in spanish for each level, analyse proposals, advice and support, etc. Also, they prepare intercultural meetings between migrants, families and pupils to know better their culture.


●     CaixaProInfancia.

The main objective of this project is to break the cycle of transmission of poverty to children of families at risk of exclusion. With this initiative, they can guarantee access to  quality educational and leisure opportunities. Acoge organisation carries out a comprehensive intervention providing  children  and their families with support through different aids focused on services and goods.


  • What kind of policies and activities are in place in your country aimed to support the educational process and the behavioural development of left behind children?

    • Organic Law 1/1996, of January 15, on the Legal Protection of Minors, on Partial Modification of the Civil Code and the Civil Procedure Law
    • Organic Law 5/2000, of January 12, on Criminal Responsibility of
    • Organic Law 8/2015, of July 22, modification of the child and adolescent protection
    • II National Strategic Plan for Children and Adolescents 2013-2016


  • What are the main organizations (national, international) in your country working for left behind children?


In our country, there are a few organisations that work for left behind children. These organisations are:


1.   Save the Children

Save the Children was founded almost a century ago with the aim of helping refugees and displaced children after the First World War. Today its work extends to 120 countries, with the aim that children’s rights are respected.

In addition, this NGO works in Spain to end the risk of social exclusion of children and young people up to 18 years of age from families in a situation of economic, relative or extreme poverty.


2.   Unicef

Protects children’s rights. Our country has one of the highest rates of child poverty in the European Union, behind Romania and Greece. Almost 40% of the child population lives below the poverty line, according to Unicef data.

UNICEF is the United Nations Children’s Fund. This entity always works with the objective of protecting the rights of children, and to this end it develops educational and health programs in 190 countries. This NGO takes care that the children’s rights included in the Human Rights treaty and the Convention on the Rights of the Child are fulfilled. Much of its funds are invested in human development programs in developing countries.

One of its flagship projects, Reto Unicef, seeks to reduce infant mortality. According to this entity, unfortunately, still today 17,000 children die a day due to lack of vaccines and health resources, due to malnutrition or because they do not have access to drinking water.


3.   Aldeas Infantiles

A home for everyone. The SOS Children’s Villages program helps children in Spain, who for various reasons cannot live with their parents, have a family environment that allows them to grow up surrounded by love and the support they need.

Aldeas Infantiles also has an Emergency Response Program, which also works for the seven million Syrian minors in urgent need of humanitarian aid.


4.   Fundación Pequeño Deseo: emotional well-being for sick children

Fulfilling a wish generates positive emotions that can have a huge effect on the well-being of children with a disease, since its benefits can last up to nine months, according to the report ‘Fulfilling Small Wishes: Effects on the well-being of children with serious diseases’, of the Official College of Psychologists of Madrid and the Complutense University of Madrid.

And it is this well-being that the Fundación Pequeño Deseo takes advantage of, which makes the wishes of minors with chronic diseases come true, to help them face their health problems. Since 2000, and being the footsteps of the Make-A-Wish association -which also works in Spain, with similar objectives-, this foundation helps the smallest with problems to meet their idols, with visits to hospitals. This project has the support of Messengers of Peace and the Spanish Pediatric Association (AEP). The key is to excite children with experiences that enrich their lives, with hope, strength and joy.


5.   Payasos Sin fronteras

Laughter as therapy. Exciting grimaces. Jokes and artistic skills that surprise and serve to transform the complicated situation experienced by many minors due to war  or  natural disasters.

Laughter is the best medicine, according to the people in charge of Payasos Sin Fronteras, an NGO that since 1993 has helped children through art. Its clowns are artists who, on a voluntary basis, cheer up the little refugees, who live in populations in conflict or with a lack of resources. Their work serves to sensitize values such as solidarity, empathy and humanitarian aid.


6.   Infancia sin fronteras

Infancia sin fronteras works in low-resources and poor countries, including Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Niger, and Sri Lanka. This entity has food health, clean energy, maternal health and quality education projects to combat child inequality.


7.  Help in Action

Ayuda en Acción is another NGO that helps children, through the promotion of health policies and health care, food and education projects to protect the rights of children. It is in 19 countries. It also works to raise awareness in Spanish schools interested in education for human rights.


  • Have there been implemented in your country any projects addressed to left behind children in the past ten years?

    • Who initiated them?

    • What did they focus on?

    • What are their results?

Some of the organisations mentioned above have been carrying out different actions/plans to help left behind and migrant children.

  • Save the This organisation has settled various proposals to protect migrant children. Their specific proposals are:
  1. To modify the Framework Protocol on certain actions in relation to unaccompanied foreign minors with regard to the effective application of the best interests of the child and the right to be
  2. To guarantee the existence, within the system for the protection of minors, of centers and professionals specialized in child victims of trafficking, which guarantee the primacy of the principle of the best interests of the minor in their identification as well as their protection, security and recovery, attending to their special
  3. To approve a Framework Protocol on the detection and care of child victims of trafficking, which coordinates and harmonizes the actions of the different administrations and entities in order to guarantee their protection, security, physical and psychosocial recovery, as well as finding a durable solution to each case in accordance with your best


  1. To give the overcrowding situation of the Temporary Stay Centers for Immigrants (CETIS) as reception centers, and the expressions of concern from different institutions and
  2. To accept the quotas assigned by the EU for the relocation and resettlement of refugees from Syria, Iraq and Eritrea, and promote in the EU the need to implement these mechanisms
  3. To carry out the transposition of the European Directive on standards for the reception of applicants for international protection as soon as possible to ensure reception conditions in accordance with EU standards for people who arrive in Spain fleeing conflicts and the persecution
  • In January of 2020, the first meeting of Unicef Lab was organised. In this meeting, Unicef selected 5 companies which are working in the high-level training and mentoring, access to private investors from the ISDI Accelerator network and they have the opportunity to develop pilots or proofs of concept with UNICEF Spanish Committee. The programme started in February 2020 and it lasted for three months.

The aim of this programme was to find innovative solutions to the challenges faced by the most vulnerable children.


This line of activity aims to sensitize Spanish society in general, and the youngest in particular, in matters such as social commitment, ethnic and gender equality, etc. In addition, it is the way to convey to the population the image of Infancia sin Fronteras and its work in a faithful and transparent manner.

It should be noted the importance of structuring awareness-raising actions through educational institutions, so that they serve as an amplifier, both for students and teaching staff, to transmit the values in the following promotions.

The implementation and operation of all these programs that they carry out in different parts of the world are financed through public subsidies; aid from private entities and companies, and contributions from individuals through sponsorship or other forms of collaboration.

  • Ayuda en acción. GENIOS programme is designed to bring technology to all children, betting on an education in values while we fight against the digital and gender divide. Their challenge is to bring the world of science and technology closer to children and adolescents on equal
  • Can you identify the specific needs of migrant parents and of left behind children based on the researched information?

Based on the researched information, it seems that there is an important lack of information about parental education in migrant parents and their children and there is not a study or project which could help those parents to be in contact with them when they are left in their origin countries. Every study or project carried out in our country has the aim to help migrant people and children who are already in Spain. In fact, during this research, an interesting information was found; a study released by Save the Children reflects that migrant children are not fully protected in our country by the law, as there are contradictions between laws and practices. There are girls under 18 who are suffering sexual exploitation and when they are found there is no law which protects them. Also, children who came to Spain without their families should have a tutor, in some cases, the Spanish Government has this obligation and it is the Administration which makes sure that those children will have the right education and development. However, some of them are still living without protection in the streets or when they turn 18 years old, the law does not protect them anymore and they will have to survive by themselves. Moreover, sometimes they do not even have legal documents which allow them to live and work in the country.

However, it appears that parental education is a fundamental topic which has a significant meaning for educators and family at the present time. According to Trivette and Dunst (2005) parental education looks for an improvement in parental skills and it promotes the development of new skills which let them to achieve their responsibilities with their children and to give them better opportunities to improve their learning and development.

Taking into consideration this reference, there is a valuable reason which shows why parental education is essential and why there are different programmes developed to promote cognitive and behavioral changes in parents .

In summary, it seems that there is a significant lack of information about migrant parents’ education and children left behind. A lot of investigations, programmes and projects need to be done and it appears that they do not exist. As it is mentioned in our project, those children who are not near their parents, need that connection with them as they are abandoned in the most important years of their development. Also, their parents need protection and support to understand the situation. Leaving their homes, countries and their children is not an easy action to do and their mental health could be affected as well.




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  • (2008): «El impacto de la inmigración en el sistema educativo espan Instituto Elcano, 63. , Análisis del Real
  • Datos del Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad en el marco del Plan Integral de Lucha contra la Trata de Mujeres y Nin 2015-2018. s con fines de explotación sexual
  • (2018) Programa de parentalidad positiva del ayuntamiento de Vitoria-Gasteiz
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  • Juan Carlos Martín, María Luisa Máiquez, María José Rodrigo, Ana Delia Correa, Guacimara Rodríguez (2004) Evaluation of the “Apoyo personal y familiar (personal and family support) prevention programme for high psychosocial risk parents, journal for the study of education and development, 27:4, 437-455